The primary work of the Cement Mason is finishing the exposed concrete surfaces on many types of construction projects. These projects range from small jobs such as finishing patios, floors, and sidewalks to working on commercial, industrial and public buildings and miles of highways and airport landing sites. The Cement Mason levels, smoothes and shapes surfaces of freshly poured concrete. Although they are involved in home building with driveway, sidewalk and basement work, the bulk of their work is commercial and industrial building. They also set forms in which the concrete is poured. Their basic tools are the straight-edge, trowel, bull float, hand float, edgers, jointers, hammers, hand saws, spirit levels and power trowels. The Cement Mason's knowledge of trade materials is essential to the quality of work. The skilled Mason must know the working characteristics of various cement and concrete mixes. In addition, because of the effects that heat, cold, and wind have on the curing of cement, the skilled Mason must recognize by sight and touch that which is occurring in the cement mixture to prevent defects.